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Session 9 - Anatomy and Metabolic Pathways

Fly Feet Flyer

 

Metabolic Pathways

  • Phosphogenic - speed and power, high demand on CNS, think 30” or less effort, unsustainable, lots of rest

  • Glycolytic - speed, 30”-2’ of work, unsustainable, we spend a lot of time here

  • Oxidative - endurance, >2’, sustainable, we should visit this once in a while but we shouldn’t live here as it blunts our potency in the other systems

 

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic

  • Aerobic - with oxygen

    • Slow-twitch muscles

    • Primarily associated with distance related events

  • Anaerobic - without oxygen

 

Fundamental Terminology

  • Flexion - movement that decreases the angle of a joint, bends a joint of brings the bones closer together ex. Hip flexion in a squat

  • Extension - movement that straightens or opens a joint ex. Spine in an arch position on the bar, trail hip in a lunge step

  • Abduction - moves the extremities (arms and legs) away from the midline of the body

  • Adduction - moves the extremities (arms and legs) towards the midline of the body  

  • Rotation - rotary movement around an axis of bone

  • Circumduction - circular movement combining flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, different than rotation

  • Hyperextension - extension of a joint beyond neutral

  • Supination - external rotation resulting in appendage facing upward

  • Pronation - internal rotation resulting in appendage facing downward

  • Dorsiflexion - moving the top of the foot toward the shin

  • Plantarflexion - moving the top of the foot away from the shin

 

Movement and Planes of Motion

  • Frontal plane - vertical plane that divides the body front/back ex. side-to-side movement

  • Transverse plane - horizontal plane that divides the body top/bottom ex. twisting

  • Sagittal plane - vertical plane that divides the body into left/right ex. burpee

 

Bones

 

  • Make up the skeleton and protect internal organs

  • Living tissue that forms the body’s structural framework

  • Provides calcium and mineral storage important for muscle contraction

  • Bones grow and strengthen with resistance and gravitational pressure

  • Lack of healthy stress weakens the bones

  • Weight bearing exercise aid in preventing osteoporosis in which bones become fragile and more likely to break

 

Axial/Appendicular Skeleton

  • Axial - skull, sternum, ribs, spine

  • Appendicular - shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, upper and lower extremities

 

Spine

Central axis of the body comprised of 33 vertebrae

  • 4 natural curves of the spine - these natural curves provide balance and fluid movement and act as shock absorption, without them our movements would be rigid and tight

  • Cervical lordosis - curve towards the front of the body

  • Thoracic kyphosis - curve towards the back of the body

  • Lumbar lordosis - curve towards the front of the body

  • Sacral kyphosis - curve towards the back of the body

  • Movements of the spine

    • Flexion - hollow hold

    • Extension - back bend

    • Lateral flexion - samson stretch

    • Rotation - twisting like in a single KD swing

    • Axial extension - elevate vertebrae for maximum disc space, sit up straight

 

Joints

  • Point where two or more bones make contact, constructed to allow movement and provide support, absorb and control impact, should be innately frictionless

  • Three types of joints

    • Hinge - allow mobility for forward and backward movements, flexion and extension, but limit other mobility ex. Elbow and knee

    • Ball and socket - greatest mobility of all the joints because it allows for movement in all 3 planes such as changing direction when walking or running ex. Hip and shoulder

    • Intervertebral/Compressive - allow limited mobility but great stability to protect the spinal cord, located between the vertebrae of the spine

 

Mobility vs. Stability

  • Inherent joint stability depends on the shape of the adjacent bones, density of connective tissue surrounding the join and strength of the muscles that cross the joint

  • Joints with increased mobility, or available range of motion, trend toward decreased structural stability. Therefore, mobile joints like the ball and socket of the shoulder require additional support through soft-tissues like muscles, tendons, ligaments

  • Structural imbalance and/or weakness of supporting tissues around mobile joints lead to increased opportunity for joint injury

  • Joints with greater innate structural stability trend toward decreased mobility or available range of motion. Because of the greater boney support, these joints don’t rely as heavily on support from soft tissues as compared to more mobile and less stable joints

 

Soft Tissues - Tendons, Ligaments, Fascia

  • Fascia - continuous sheet of fibrous tissue located beneath the skin and around everything in the body, cannot be created or destroyed simple rearranged, firm when cool and soft when warm, becomes less and less flexible with extended immobility and can restrict movement ex. IT band

  • Ligaments - connect bone to bone, thicker version of fascia, stabilize the joint as well as control mobility, limited to no elasticity, overstretching or injury compromises stability potential of a joint

  • Tendons - connect muscle to bone, thicker version of fascia and connects fascia of the muscles to to bones

 

Muscles

  • Muscles are elastic tissue fibers organized in bundled shapes throughout the body

  • Muscle fibers are what cause a muscle to contract and they contract in response to nerve stimuli from the CNS sent from the brain

    • Calcium is released from bones to muscle → results in shortening of individual muscle fibers → the force of contraction transmits the force to the bones and moves the joint

  • Lower body

  • Abdominals

  • Upper body

 

Types of Contractions

  • Eccentric - happens during the lengthening of muscle ex. Quad in a squat

  • Concentric - happens during shortening of muscle ex. Bicep in a bicep curl

  • Isometric - engagement with no lengthening or shortening of the muscle fibers ex. Plank